Dr. Ha et al. published a preliminary study on the neoplastic transformation or the progression of undetected thyroid cancer in the peripheral portion of benign nodules by RFA in Endocrinol Metab 2019 June342169-178 Does Radiofrequency Ablation Induce Neoplastic Changes in Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Preliminary Study. Ha et al.
The data were retrospectively collected between April 2008 and June 2013 and core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed on 16 benign thyroid nodules previously treated using RFA.
Demographic Characteristics of the Enrolled Patients16 Benign Nodules)
No atypical or malignant follicular cells were identified in their study. RFA did not alter the follicular architecture or the tumor capsule, which may be due to retaining the active tip within the nodule throughout the procedure, hence areas near the thyroid capsule.
They demonstrated that RFA does not induce neoplastic transformation within regrowth of the peripheral portion on CNB specimens, and does not hinder a subsequent thyroid surgery because of the preservation of the thyroid capsule. They concluded that RFA is effective in treating benign thyroid nodules without any carcinogenic effect based on the changes of follow-up CNBs.